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Cassia auriculata L.
Fabaceae
Cassia auriculata L.
Fabaceae Image

enna auriculata is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is commonly known by its local names matura tea tree, ranawara or avaram, (Kannada: ಆವರಿಕೆ āvarike, Telugu: తంగేడు taṃgēḍu, Tamil: ஆவாரை āvārai) or the English version avaram senna. It is the State flower of Telangana.

It occurs in the dry regions of India and Sri Lanka. It is common along the sea coast and the dry zone in Sri Lanka.

Gardens

Senna auriculata is suitable for landscaping roadways and home gardens. It tolerates drought and dry conditions, but not much cold. The flowers in racemes are also attractive.[2]

Medicinal uses
This plant is said to contain a cardiac glucoside (sennapicrin) and sap, leaves and bark yield anthraquinones, while the latter contains tannins.[1]

The root is used in decoctions against fevers, diabetes, diseases of urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flowers and flower buds are used as a substitute for tea in case of diabetes patients. It is also believed to improve the complexion in women. The powdered seed is also applied to the eye, in case of chronic purulent conjunctivitis. In Africa the bark and seeds are said to give relief in rheumatism, eye diseases, gonorrhea, diabetes and gout.[1]

The plant has been shown to have antibacterial activity in the laboratory.[3]

Cissampelos pareira L.
Menispermaceae
Cissampelos pareira L.
Menispermaceae Image

It is a slender tomentose climber. The leaves are peltate, 2.5–12 cm long, 2.5–11.5 cm broad, triangularly broad-ovate, or orbicular, obtuse, mucronate, base cordate or truncate, ± tomentose on both sides; petiole pubescent. Flowers are small in size, pedicels filiform. Male flowers clustered in the axil of a small leaf; sepals are 4 in number, obovate-oblong, hairy outside; petals 4 in number, united to form a 4-toothed cup, hairy outside; stamens 4, column short, anthers connate, encircling the top of the column. Female flowers clustered in the axils of orbicular, hoary imbricate bracts, on 5–10 cm long racemes; sepal 1, petal 1; carpel 1, densely hairy; style shortly 3-fid. Drupe 4–6 mm long, 3–4 mm broad, subglobose, compressed, hairy-pubescent, red when fresh, black when dry, endocarp transversely ribbed, tuberculate. Seeds are horseshoe-shaped.[2]

Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt
Cucurbitaceae
Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt
Cucurbitaceae Image

Coccinia grandis, the ivy gourd, also known as scarlet gourd and Kowai,[2] is a tropical vine. It grows primarily in tropical climes and is commonly found in the southern Indian state of Kerala, where it forms a part of the local cuisine. It is also very popular in the Indian state of West Bengal, known as Kunduri in Bengali with popular Bengali cuisine like Kunduri Posto.[3] In the Indian north eastern state of Assam, it is called Kunduli, and Tondekayi (ತೊಂಡೆಕಾಯಿ ) in Kannada (spoken mainly in Karnataka). It is called Tendli and cooked as a vegetable in Mangalorean Konkani cuisine (Mangalore area of Karnataka, South India). In Marathi (spoken in Maharashtra), it is called tondale (तोंडले) [Plural: tondali (तोंडली)].

In Southeast Asia, it is grown for its edible young shoots and edible fruits.[4] In Thai it is called ‘tumlueng’ (ตําลึง).

Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith
Zingiberaceae
Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith
Zingiberaceae Image

Costus speciosus (Koenig) J.E. Smith (Cs; syn. Costus loureiri Horan.; Amomum arboreum Lour.; Banksia speciosa Koenig) is a herbaceous plant of the Zingiberaceae family, growing throughout South and Southeast Asia (Inoue et al. 1995; Wijayakusuma 1992). This plant has been used for various medicinal purposes in that region. Koenig described that Cs cultivated in Malaya (in 1778) was used for medicinal purposes (cited by Burkill 1966). The plant has various local names, e.g.: Pacing (Java); Tabar-tabar (Sumatra); Lingkuas (Celebes); Setawar (Malay); Zhiang liu tou (China); Mia do (Vietnam); Co trong bon (Thailand) and Spiral ginger (English) (de Padua et al. 1981; WHO 1990; Wijayakusuma 1992).

Cyclea peltata (Burm.f.)Hook.f.& Thoms.
Menispermaceae
Cyclea peltata (Burm.f.)Hook.f.& Thoms.
Menispermaceae Image

A slender climbing shrubs or twiner. Branches longitudinally ribbed or grooved, pubescent when young or glabrate. Leaves alternate, peltate, deltoid-elongate or triangular, 6-16 x 4-8 cm across, base oblique or subcordate, margin entire, apex deeply acuminate or apiculate, coriaceous, thin, dark green, glabrous or sparsely pilose above, paler thinly pilose or glaucous beneath, strong basal veins 5-9, impressed above and prominent beneath, veinlets fine and close, petiole pubescent or pilose, about 2-5 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, extra axillary, compound panicle of corymb cymes unisexual flowers. Male inflorescence axillary panicle of congested cymes, puberulous, peduncled, about 15-30 cm long, flowers greenish, calyx campanulate, lobed for quarter of the tube, sepals 4-6, pubescent inside, puberulous outside, petals cyathiform, glabrous, stamens 4, peltate synandrium, 6-8 loculed. Female flowers in a axillary panicle inflorescence, pubescent, about 3-5 cm long, bracteoles lanceolate-ovate to linear, pedicels absent or sessile, petal 1, orbicular or broadly ovate, glabrous, staminodes 6, carpels 3, globose or ovoid, pubescent, style short. Fruits drupes, subglobose, obovoid, pilose, about 3-4 mm across, endocarp subovoid with three series of tubercles hooked on each edge, style scars subbasal. Seeds curved, radical angular or terete, embryo curved, cotyledons ovate-oblong.

Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image

Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in no side effects. There is no added sugar, making this brew safer for diabetes patients. No chemicals have been added to this medicine as certified by laboratory tests conducted at the industrial Technology Institute of Sri Lanka. This medicine is also certified by the Committee of the Department of Ayurveda of Sri Lanka. This potion has cured thousands of gastric patients, and can also be consumed while taking any other medication since there is no side effect or chemical reaction as it is 100% natural Ayurvedic product.

Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image

Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in no side effects. There is no added sugar, making this brew safer for diabetes patients. No chemicals have been added to this medicine as certified by laboratory tests conducted at the industrial Technology Institute of Sri Lanka. This medicine is also certified by the Committee of the Department of Ayurveda of Sri Lanka. This potion has cured thousands of gastric patients, and can also be consumed while taking any other medication since there is no side effect or chemical reaction as it is 100% natural Ayurvedic product.

Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image

Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in no side effects. There is no added sugar, making this brew safer for diabetes patients. No chemicals have been added to this medicine as certified by laboratory tests conducted at the industrial Technology Institute of Sri Lanka. This medicine is also certified by the Committee of the Department of Ayurveda of Sri Lanka. This potion has cured thousands of gastric patients, and can also be consumed while taking any other medication since there is no side effect or chemical reaction as it is 100% natural Ayurvedic product.

Santalum album L.
Santalaceae
Santalum album L.
Santalaceae Image

Users
S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The central part of the tree, the heartwood, is the only part of the tree that is used for its fragrance. It is yellow-brown in color, hard with an oily texture and due to its durability, is the perfect material for carving. The outer part of the tree, the sapwood, is unscented. The sapwood is white or yellow in color and is used to make turnery items. The high value of sandalwood has led to attempts at cultivation, this has increased the distribution range of the plant. The ISO Standard for the accepted characteristics of this essential oil is ISO 3518:2002.[11] HPTLC and GC,[12] GC-MS based methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the volatile [13] essential oil constituents. The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have been restrictive to extensive planting within the range. Harvest of the tree involves several curing and processing stages, also adding to the commercial value. These wood and oil have high demand and are an important trade item in the regions of:

India
The use of S. album in India is noted in literature for over two thousand years. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. It also features as a construction material in temples and elsewhere. The Indian government has banned the export of the species to reduce the threat by over-harvesting. In the southern Indian states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh all trees of greater than a specified girth are the property of the state. Cutting of trees, even on private property, is regulated by the Forest Department.[14] The infamous forest bandit Veerappan was involved in the illegal felling of sandalwood trees from forests.
Sri Lanka
The harvesting of sandalwood is preferred to be of trees that are advanced in age. Saleable wood can, however, be of trees as young as seven years. The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. The extensive removal of S. album over the past century led to increased vulnerability to extinction.[1]
Australia
Utilisation of native Australian Santalum species in has been extensive; Santalum spicatum was extensively harvested and exported from Western Australia during colonisation, this was used as a less expensive alternative to this species. There are two commercial Indian sandalwood plantations in full operation based in Kununurra, Western Australia.[15][16]

Cassia auriculata L.
Fabaceae Image
Cassia auriculata L.
Fabaceae
enna auriculata is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is commonly known by its local names matura tea tree, ranawara or avaram, (Kannada: ಆವರಿಕೆ āvarike, Telugu: తంగేడు taṃgēḍu, Tamil: ஆ?... Read More
Cissampelos pareira L.
Menispermaceae Image
Cissampelos pareira L.
Menispermaceae
It is a slender tomentose climber. The leaves are peltate, 2.5–12 cm long, 2.5–11.5 cm broad, triangularly broad-ovate, or orbicular, obtuse, mucronate, base cordate or truncate, ± tomentose on both sides; petiole pubescent. Flowers... Read More
Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt
Cucurbitaceae Image
Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt
Cucurbitaceae
Coccinia grandis, the ivy gourd, also known as scarlet gourd and Kowai,[2] is a tropical vine. It grows primarily in tropical climes and is commonly found in the southern Indian state of Kerala, where it forms a part of the local cuisine... Read More
Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith
Zingiberaceae Image
Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith
Zingiberaceae
Costus speciosus (Koenig) J.E. Smith (Cs; syn. Costus loureiri Horan.; Amomum arboreum Lour.; Banksia speciosa Koenig) is a herbaceous plant of the Zingiberaceae family, growing throughout South and Southeast Asia (Inoue et al. 1995; Wij... Read More
Cyclea peltata (Burm.f.)Hook.f.& Thoms.
Menispermaceae Image
Cyclea peltata (Burm.f.)Hook.f.& Thoms.
Menispermaceae
A slender climbing shrubs or twiner. Branches longitudinally ribbed or grooved, pubescent when young or glabrate. Leaves alternate, peltate, deltoid-elongate or triangular, 6-16 x 4-8 cm across, base oblique or subcordate, margin entire,... Read More
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in ... Read More
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in ... Read More
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya Image
Rajapura Panchabala Amurtha Panaya
Rajapura products introducing a tonic which is called as Rajapura Amurtha Paanaya and this product is presetting to you with proven Ayurvedic Cure for Gastritis. The product is produced using 100% natural herbal ingredients resulting in ... Read More
Santalum album L.
Santalaceae Image
Santalum album L.
Santalaceae
Users S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The central part of the tree, the heartw... Read More